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Title: US5110361: Magnesium oxychloride cement compositions and methods for manufacture and use
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Country: US United States of America

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13 pages

 
Inventor: Alley, Russell I.; Salt Lake City, UT
Caine, George E.; Salt Lake City, UT

Assignee: CAC, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT
other patents from CAC, INC. (83500) (approx. 2)
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Published / Filed: 1992-05-05 / 1991-04-01

Application Number: US1991000678602

IPC Code: Advanced: C04B 9/02; C04B 20/00; C04B 28/32;
IPC-7: C04B 9/02;

ECLA Code: C04B9/02; C04B20/00H; C04B28/32; M04B111/00T2; M04B111/72;

U.S. Class: Current: 106/685; 052/742.1; 106/686; 106/688; 264/299; 264/333; 264/334; 427/403;
Original: 106/685; 106/686; 106/688; 052/743; 264/299; 264/333; 264/334; 427/403;

Field of Search: 106/685,686,688 052/743 427/403 264/299,333,334

Priority Number:
1991-04-01  US1991000678602
1988-11-04  US1988000267443

Abstract:     Magnesium oxychloride cement compositions, products, and uses thereof, are provided by mixing magnesium oxide, a magnesium chloride solution, and aggregate particles. The cement compositions are adapted for use in repairing damaged concrete surfaces, casting both functional and decorative forms, and coating surfaces with stucco. The addition of a small amount of acid to the cement composition promotes a more complete cementing reaction. The resulting cement product exhibits substantially increased strength and water resistance. Brine from the Great Salt Lake is a preferable source of the magnesium chloride solution. Brine from the Great Salt Lake results in a cement composition substantially stronger than cement produced from a pure magnesium chloride solution. Use of the Great Salt Lake brine as the gauging solution in lieu of a gauging solution made from magnesium chloride flakes (hexahydrate) reduces manufacturing costs of magnesium oxychloride cement products.

Attorney, Agent or Firm: Workman, Nydegger & Jensen ;

Primary / Asst. Examiners: Dixon, Jr., William R.; Green, Anthony J.

Maintenance Status: CC Certificate of Correction issued

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Application Number Filed Patent Pub. Date  Title
US1988000267443 1988-11-04    1991-04-02  Magnesium oxychloride cement compositions and methods for manufacture and use


       
Parent Case:     This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 07/267,443, filed Nov. 4, 1988 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,004,505.
    1. The Field of the Invention
    The invention relates to cement compositions and products, and the methods of manufacturing and using such compositions. More particularly, the present invention is directed to novel magnesium oxychloride cement compositions, products, and uses thereof.
    2. Review of the Technology
    Cement and cementitious products affect everyone, from the roads we drive on, to the buildings we work in, to the homes we live in. Early principles and applications of cement and cement products were known anciently. The Romans, for example, developed cements and cement products to a high degree of sophistication. Despite centuries of knowledge concerning cements and cement products and despite countless variations of cement compositions, problems still arise while using cements which heretofore have not been adequately solved.
    One of the most important uses of cement compositions is in concrete. As used herein, the term "concrete" is broadly defined as a hard strong building material made by mixing a water-cement mixture with a mineral aggregate such as sand and gravel. The cement acts as a glue to bind the aggregate particles together. The physical properties of concrete vary depending on the cement composition and upon the choice of aggregates.
    Concrete is commonly used to construct driveways, sidewalks, floors, and roads (hereinafter referred to generically as "road surfaces"). Concrete road surfaces are usually constructed of Portland cement. Although Portland cement is the industry standard, it is generally slow setting and requires a substantial cure time to reach an acceptable strength. In fact, it has been estimated that Portland cement does not reach full strength for about 100 years.
    Despite careful selection of cement and aggregate, virtually all concrete road surfaces crack, chip, spall, or experience damage to one degree or another. The weather, the size and type of vehicles which travel on the road surfaces, as well as the quality of concrete and the skill in laying the concrete, influence the extent of damage to the concrete surface. In addition, reinforced concrete roads are often damaged when deicing salt is absorbed by the concrete. When the salt reaches the reinforcing steel, corrosion occurs, causing expansion and destruction of the road surface.
    Once a concrete road surface is damaged, it is important to repair the damage in order to reduce the severity of future damage. Repairing damaged concrete surfaces, as referred to in this specification, implies restoring the damaged concrete surface to a state functionally equivalent to the undamaged state. The damaged surface may be patched, filled, resurfaced with thin or thick coatings, or restored in some other manner known in the art, depending on the circumstances and the type of damage.
    There are many products on the market for repairing damaged concrete surfaces. Historically, concrete was repaired by applying new concrete or mortar to the damaged area. This technique was not a long-term solution to the problem because the new concrete or mortar shrinks when it sets, thereby weakening or destroying the bond between the two surfaces.
    In recent years, resin or epoxy-type materials have been used to repair damaged concrete surfaces. It was hoped that the resin cements with appropriate aggregates would solve the problems of traditional concrete repair compositions. Resin cements are fast setting and strong, but they are also expensive.
    A common problem with epoxy-type cement compositions is that they set too fast, so fast that the epoxy-type cements have been known to harden before the user can properly apply and spread the composition over a damaged concrete surface. In addition, resin cements require the proper addition of special curing agents in order to adequately harden. Also, resin cements are adversely effected by ultraviolet rays which reduces their useful life. Unfortunately, even though such epoxy-type cements appear to form a good bond with the deteriorating road surface, it has been observed that the epoxy-type cements also fail with age and with heavy use.
    Another important use of cement compositions is in exterior plaster and stucco applications, hereinafter referred to as stucco. Stucco is a popular exterior covering for residential and commercial buildings, particularly in the western United States. Historically, exterior stuccos have consisted of a Portland cement composition. Stucco wire or metal lath is usually placed over the exterior surface in order to support the cement stucco. In addition, paper or some other material is typically placed between the stucco composition and the substrate as a moisture barrier.
    It is generally accepted that stucco applied directly to the substrate without wire or paper would crack and fail as the substrate expands, contracts, or bends due to the lack of adequate bond between the surface coating and the substrate. Multiple coats of the Portland cement stucco have been necessarily applied over a period of days with a normal curing time of five (5) days between coats in order to have a satisfactory product. Unfortunately, these cement stucco compositions tended to crack and shrink with age.
    Moreover, when Portland cement stucco compositions are applied over a concrete block wall, the stucco composition "photographs" the mortar joints. "Photographing" is a phenomenon which results because the mortar joints and concrete blocks absorb different amounts of water from the stucco composition. As a result, stucco applied over the mortar joints cures at a different rate than stucco applied over the concrete block. Consequently, stucco over the mortar joints has a different color than stucco over the concrete blocks.
    In recent years, resin cement stuccos have been used instead of Portland cement stuccos. It was believed that these resin cement stuccos would overcome some of the problems associated with Portland cement stuccos. Unfortunately, it has been found that resin cement stuccos are subject to deterioration by heat and ultraviolet rays. Therefore, resin cement stuccos are subject to failure with age and exposure to the sun. In addition, the costs of construction using these resin cement stuccos can even surpass the costs of construction with brick veneer and commonly used exterior wall coverings.
    Other examples illustrating additional uses of cement compositions would further demonstrate the need in the art for improved cement compositions. Nevertheless, from the foregoing, it will be appreciated that it would be a significant advancement in the art to provide cement compositions which possess a high structural strength, and yet have a high bonding strength to common substrates.
    In addition, it will be appreciated that it would be an advancement in the art to provide relatively fast setting cement compositions which do not set so fast as to prevent adequate "working" of the compositions to form the desired product.
    Additionally, it would be a further advancement in the art to provide cement compositions which do not shrink upon setting in order that a good bond can be formed with the adjacent surfaces, such as when used to repair deteriorating concrete road surfaces.
    It would be yet another advancement in the art to provide cement compositions which are resistant to weather exposure, including heat, ultraviolet rays, and deicing salts.
    It would be still another advancement in the art to provide cement compositions which do not require special curing compositions or techniques.
    It would be an additional advancement in the art to provide cement stucco compositions which can be applied directly to a substrate surface without the need of costly stucco wire and without the need of labor intensive multiple coatings.
    The foregoing, and other features and objects of the present invention are provided by the invention which is disclosed and claimed herein.

BRIEF SUMMARY AND OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION

    The present invention is directed to novel magnesium oxychloride cement compositions and products, and the methods of manufacturing and using such compositions and products. The cement compositions within the scope of the present invention are advantageously adapted for use in repairing damaged concrete surfaces, casting both functional and decorative forms, and coating substrates with a stucco-like surface.
    The present invention represents an improvement on the basic Sorel cement system. The basic Sorel system consisted of calcined magnesia (MgO, also known as magnesium oxide) mixed with an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride (MgCl2). In the present invention, the ratio of magnesium oxide to magnesium chloride in the cement composition is carefully controlled. The resulting mixture has a ratio of magnesium oxide to magnesium chloride solution in the range from about 1:2 to about 2:1. In addition, the ratio of cement composition to aggregate particles (both size and quality of the aggregate particles) is carefully adjusted depending upon the desired end use.
    Moreover, it has been found that the addition of a small amount of concentrated acid to the cement composition promotes a more complete cementing reaction. The resulting cement product exhibits substantially increased strength and water resistance. It has also been found that the use of brine from the Great Salt Lake as a source of magnesium chloride results in a cement composition which is not only less expensive than cement compositions made from pure magnesium chloride solutions, but also substantially stronger.
    An exemplary concrete repair composition within the scope of the present invention includes about 15% to about 25% magnesium oxide, about 15% to about 25% magnesium chloride solution, and the remainder a combination of differently sized aggregate particles. The magnesium chloride solution preferably has a specific gravity in the range from about 20° Baume to about 30° Baume. When used for a concrete repair composition, the present invention utilizes aggregate particles selected to minimize voids and interstitial spaces between the aggregate particles, thereby resulting in a dense concrete repair composition. Acid may also be added to the concrete repair composition up to about 10% of the magnesium chloride solution by weight to increase compressive strength, reduce set time, and lower the freezing temperature.
    The concrete repair compositions within the scope of the present invention possess exceptional high early strength, as well as high bondability to damaged concrete surfaces. In addition, these concrete repair compositions do not shrink upon setting and have been found to be very weather resistant.
    An exemplary stucco composition within the scope of the present invention includes about 10% to about 20% magnesium oxide, about 15% to about 25% magnesium chloride solution, and the remainder a combination of differently sized, relatively small aggregate particles, such as on the order of about #16 to about #200 silica sand properly graded to produce the desired mix. Acid, up to about 10% of the magnesium chloride solution by weight, may be added to increase the strength of and to control the setting time and freezing temperature of the resulting composition. The magnesium chloride solution preferably has a specific gravity in the range from about 20° Baume to about 30° Baume.
    The stucco compositions within the scope of the present invention exhibit exceptional bond strength to a wide variety of substrates. Moreover, these stucco compositions may be applied in a single coat directly on the substrate, without the need to use stucco wire and water impervious paper unless specifically required by building codes. Once applied, the resultant stucco has been found to resist the formation of cracks even when exposed to prolonged cycles of heat and cold. Furthermore, tests indicate that the stucco compositions within the scope of the present invention possess excellent weather resistance to water, heat, and light and that the stucco compositions do not "photograph" underlying mortar joints when applied to block and brick masonry.
    An exemplary castable concrete composition within the scope of the present invention includes about 10% to about 25% magnesium oxide, about 15% to about 40% magnesium chloride solution, and a combination of differently sized aggregate particles. Acid, up to about 10% of the magnesium chloride solution by weight, may also be added to the castable concrete composition to increase the strength and water resistance of the composition as well as reduce the set time and freezing temperature. The magnesium chloride solution preferably has a specific gravity in the range from about 20° Baume to about 30° Baume.
    It has been found that the castable concrete compositions within the scope of the present invention produce high quality castings of both functional and ornamental products. In the case of art castings, compositions within the scope of the invention can produce a "finished surface" without the need for firing or glazing the product. It has also been found that an exceptionally smooth and accurate casting may be achieved by utilizing well graded aggregate, proper cement to aggregate ratio, and selection of the mold surface to produce the desired surface finish. For example, for a smooth polished finish, a mixture of aggregate particles ranging in size from about #8 silica sand to about #200 silica sand has been found to be satisfactory.
    It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide cement compositions which possess a high structural strength, and yet have a high bonding strength to common substrates.
    Another important object of the present invention is to provide relative fast curing cement compositions, but which do not set so fast as to prevent adequate "working" of the compositions to form the desired end product.
    An additional object of the present invention is to provide cement compositions which do not shrink upon setting in order that a good bond can be formed with the adjacent surface, such as when used to repair deteriorating concrete road surfaces.
    A further important object of the present invention is to provide cement compositions which are resistant to weather exposure, including heat, ultraviolet rays, and deicing salts.
    Yet another important object of the present invention is to provide cement compositions which do not require special curing compositions or techniques that would inhibit their use for common construction projects.
    An additional important object of the present invention is to provide cement stucco compositions which can be applied directly to a substrate surface without the need of costly stucco wire and without the need of labor intensive multiple coatings of the stucco compositions.
    Still another important object of the present invention is to provide cement compositions which can be cast into both functional and ornamental products and which can produce a finished surface without the need for firing or glazing the product.
    A further important object of the present invention is to provide cement compositions for repairing damaged and deteriorating concrete surfaces.
    These and other objects and features of the present invention will become more fully apparent from the following description and appended claims or may be learned from the practice of the invention.

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First Claim:
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What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:     1. A method for repairing damaged concrete surfaces comprising the steps of:
  • (a) mixing magnesium oxide with a magnesium chloride solution having a specific gravity in the range from about 20° Baume to about 30° Baume such that the resulting mixture has a ratio by weight of magnesium oxide to magnesium chloride solution in the range from about 1:2 to about 2:1;
  • (b) adding acid to the mixture of step (a) such that the weight percentage of acid in the resulting cement composition is in the range from about 1% to about 10% of the magnesium chloride solution by weight;
  • (c) combining the cement composition of step (b) with a combination of differently sized aggregate particles selected to minimize voids and interstitial spaces between said aggregate particles, thereby forming a dense material product, wherein the ratio of magnesium oxide to aggregate particles is in the range from about 1:2 to about 1:5; and
  • (d) applying the product of step (c) to a damaged concrete surface in a manner such that the concrete surface is repaired.


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Forward References: Show 16 U.S. patent(s) that reference this one

       
U.S. References: Go to Result Set: All U.S. references   |  Forward references (16)   |   Backward references (21)   |   Citation Link

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Patent  Pub.Date  Inventor Assignee   Title
Get PDF - 4pp US1667721* 1928-05 Copeman    
Get PDF - 3pp US2462030* 1949-02 Whitehead    
Get PDF - 5pp US2543959* 1951-03 Eastin    
Get PDF - 3pp US2605190* 1952-07 Woodward et al.    
Get PDF - 5pp US3353975* 1967-11 Shannon et al.    
Get PDF - 4pp US3565650  1971-02 Cordon   LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE PRODUCTS AND A PROCESS OF PRODUCING SAME
Get PDF - 5pp US3667978  1972-06 Vassilevsky   LIGHT-WEIGHT HIGH-STRENGTH CEMENT COMPOSITIONS
Get PDF - 4pp US3719512  1973-03 Danielis   BRICK COMPOSITION
Get PDF - 4pp US3745031  1973-07 Kaplan   INSULATING COMPOSITION
Get PDF - 8pp US3816147  1974-06 Vassilevsky  V. R. B. Associates, Inc. LIGHT-WEIGHT HIGH-STRENGTH CEMENT COMPOSITIONS USING HYDROLYZED ORGANIC MATERIAL
Get PDF - 6pp US3951885  1976-04 Thompson  Thompson Chemicals, Inc. Method of making magnesium oxychloride cement cofoamed with synthetic resin
Get PDF - 6pp US3963849  1976-06 Thompson  Thompson Chemicals, Inc. Fireproof product using magnesium oxychloride cement
Get PDF - 5pp US3969453  1976-07 Thompson  Thompson Chemicals, Inc. Method of molding fireproof products containing magnesium oxychloride cement
Get PDF - 3pp US4055519  1977-10 Thompson  Thompson; Henry Clark Simultaneously foamed resin and magnesium oxychloride cement
Get PDF - 17pp US4141744  1979-02 Prior et al.  Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cellular inorganic resin cements, and process and compositions for forming them
Get PDF - 6pp US4158570  1979-06 Irwin  PPG Industries, Inc. Preparing magnesium oxychloride and/or oxysulfate cements
Get PDF - 6pp US4170248  1979-10 Bennett et al.  Oil Base, Inc. Method for repairing sewer pipes
Get PDF - 6pp US4209339  1980-06 Smith-Johannsen  Norcem A/S Cement compositions
Get PDF - 6pp US4352694  1982-10 Smith-Johannsen  Norcem A.S. Process of producing sorel cement
Get PDF - 23pp US4572862  1986-02 Ellis  Delphic Research Laboratories, Inc. Fire barrier coating composition containing magnesium oxychlorides and high alumina calcium aluminate cements or magnesium oxysulphate
Get PDF - 5pp US4761342  1988-08 Bjorhaag et al.  Nova Scand Utveckling AB Fibre board, a method for making it, and a binder composition
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Foreign References:
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Publication Date IPC Code Assignee   Title
  CA1562154 1980-03       
  SU0172218 1965-07       


Other Abstract Info: CHEMABS 114(22)212941E DERABS C91-116934

Other References:
  • Coope, B., "Caustic Magnesia Markets--agricultural oversupply and industrial underdemand," Industrial Minerals (Feb. 1981), pp. 43-51.
  • Kurdowski, W. and Sorrentino, F., "Special Cements", Structure and Performance of Cements, ch. 10, various excerpts, Applied Science Publishers Ltd. (1983).
  • Lea, F. M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. (1970), various excerpts.
  • The Merck Index, Tenth Edition (1983), pp. 810-811.


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